Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2017
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Principles of Consolidation and Operations
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Wayside Technology Group, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”) requires management to make extensive use of certain estimates and assumptions which affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. The significant areas of estimation include but are not limited to accounting for allowance for doubtful accounts, sales returns, discount rates applicable to long term receivables, inventory obsolescence, income taxes, depreciation, contingencies and stock-based compensation. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Net Income Per Common Share
Our basic and diluted earnings per share are computed using the two-class method. The two-class method is an earnings allocation method that determines net income per share for each class of common stock and participating securities according to their participation rights in dividends and undistributed earnings or losses. Non-vested restricted stock awards that include non-forfeitable rights to dividends are considered participating securities. Per share amounts are computed by dividing net income available to common shareholders by the weighted average shares outstanding during each period. Diluted and basic earnings per share are the same because the restricted shares are the only potentially dilutive security.
A reconciliation of the numerators and denominators of the basic and diluted per share computations follows:
The Company considers all liquid short-term investments with maturities of 90 days or less when purchased to be cash equivalents.
Accounts receivable principally represents amounts collectible from our customers. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers but generally does not require collateral to support any outstanding obligation.
Allowance for Accounts Receivable
We provide allowances for doubtful accounts related to accounts receivable for estimated losses resulting from the inability of our customers to make required payments. We take into consideration the overall quality and aging of the receivable portfolio along with specifically identified customer risks. If actual customer payment performance were to deteriorate to an extent not expected, additional allowances may be required. At the time of sale, we record an estimate for sales returns based on historical experience. If actual sales returns are greater than estimated by management, additional expense may be incurred.
Foreign Currency Translation
Assets and liabilities of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries have been translated using the end of the reporting period exchange rates, and related revenues and expenses have been translated at average rates of exchange in effect during the period. Cumulative translation adjustments have been classified within accumulated other comprehensive income, which is a separate component of stockholders’ equity in accordance FASB ASC Topic No. 220, “Comprehensive Income”. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are recorded as income or expenses as amounts are settled.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations in credit risk consist of cash and cash equivalents.
The Company’s cash and cash equivalents, at times, may exceed federally insured limits. The Company’s cash and cash equivalents are deposited primarily in banking institutions with global operations. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts. The Company believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk on cash and cash equivalents.
The carrying amounts of financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable approximated fair value as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, because of the relative short maturity of these instruments. The Company’s accounts receivable long-term is discounted to their present value at prevailing market rates at the time of sale which approximates fair value as of December 31, 2017 and 2016.
Inventory, consisting primarily of finished products held for resale, is stated at the lower of cost (weighted average) or market.
Equipment and Leasehold Improvements
Equipment and leasehold improvements are stated at cost. Equipment depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over three to five years. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets or the related lease terms, whichever is shorter.
Accounts receivable-long-term result from product sales with extended payment terms that are discounted to their present values at the prevailing market rates at the time of sale. In subsequent periods, the accounts receivable are increased to the amounts due and payable by the customers through the accretion of interest income on the unpaid accounts receivable due in future years. The amounts under these long-term accounts receivable due within one year are reclassified to the current portion of accounts receivable.
Comprehensive income consists of net income for the period and the impact of unrealized foreign currency translation adjustments. The foreign currency translation adjustments are not currently adjusted for income taxes as they relate to permanent investments in international subsidiaries.
Revenue on product (software and hardware) and maintenance and subscription agreement sales are recognized once four criteria are met: (1) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, (2) the price is fixed and determinable, (3) delivery (software and hardware) or fulfillment (maintenance and subscription) has occurred, and (4) there is reasonable assurance of collection of the sales proceeds. Revenues from the sales of hardware products, software products and licenses, are recognized on a gross basis upon transfer of title with the selling price to the customer recorded as sales and the acquisition cost of the product recorded as cost of sales.
Product delivery to customers occur in a variety of ways, including (i) as physical product shipped from the Company’s warehouse, (ii) via drop-shipment by the vendor, or (iii) via electronic delivery for software licenses. The Company leverages drop-ship arrangements with many of its vendors and suppliers to deliver products to customers without having to physically hold the inventory at its warehouse, thereby increasing efficiency and reducing costs. The Company recognizes revenue for drop-ship arrangements on a gross basis. Furthermore, in such drop-ship arrangements, the Company negotiates price with the customer, pays the supplier directly for the product shipped and bears credit risk of collecting payment from its customers. Maintenance and subscription agreements allow customers to access software and obtain technical support directly from the software publisher and to upgrade, at no additional cost, to the latest technology if new applications are introduced by the software publisher during the period that the maintenance and subscription agreement is in effect. The Company recognizes the sales and cost of sales of the product upon receiving notification from the vendor that the product has been shipped to the contract fulfilled.
Sales are recorded net of discounts, rebates, and returns. Vendor rebates and price protection are recorded when earned as a reduction to cost of sales or merchandise inventory, as applicable.
Cooperative reimbursements from vendors, which are earned and available, are recorded in the period the related advertising expenditure is incurred. Cooperative reimbursements are recorded as a reduction of cost of sales in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 605-50 “Accounting by a Customer (including reseller) for Certain Consideration Received from a Vendor.” Provisions for returns are estimated based on historical sales returns and credit memo analysis which are adjusted to actual on a periodic basis.
The Company has stockholder-approved stock incentive plans for employees and directors. Stock- based compensation is recognized based on the grant date fair value and is recognized as expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period.
Interest, net consists primarily of income from the amortization of the discount on accounts receivable long term, net of interest expense on the Company’s credit facility.
The Company utilizes the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities and are measured using enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. This method also requires a valuation allowance against the net deferred tax asset if, based on the weighted available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in income tax expense when assessed. The Company accounts for uncertainties in accordance with FASB ASC 740 “Income Taxes”. This standard clarified the accounting for uncertainties in income taxes. The standard prescribes criteria for recognition and measurement of tax positions. It also provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, and disclosures related to income taxes associated with uncertain tax positions. The Company classifies all deferred tax asset or liabilities as non-current on the balance sheet in accordance with ASU 2015-17 which the Company has adopted.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the FASB issued guidance for revenue recognition for contracts, superseding the previous revenue recognition requirements, along with most existing industry-specific guidance. In March, April, May and December 2016, the FASB issued additional updates to the new accounting standard which provide supplemental adoption guidance and clarifications. The guidance requires an entity to review contracts in five steps: 1) identify the contract, 2) identify performance obligations, 3) determine the transaction price, 4) allocate the transaction price, and 5) recognize revenue in order to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The new standard will also result in enhanced disclosures regarding the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue arising from contracts with customers.
The guidance permits two methods of adoption: retrospectively to each prior reporting period presented (full retrospective method), or retrospectively with the cumulative effect of initially applying the guidance recognized at the date of initial application (the cumulative catch-up transition method). The new standard will be effective for the Company beginning January 1, 2018, and early adoption as of January 1, 2017 is permitted.
The Company elected to adopt the standard effective January 1, 2018 using the full retrospective method, which will require the Company to recast its historical financial information for 2017 and 2016 to be consistent with the standard. The most significant impact of adopting the standard relates to the determination of whether the Company is acting as a principal or an agent in the sale of third party security software and software that is highly interdependent with support, as well as maintenance, support and other services. Historically, under the transfer of risk and rewards model of revenue recognition, the Company has accounted for primarily all of its sales on a gross basis. The new guidance requires the Company to identify performance obligations and assess transfer of control. While assessing its performance obligations for sales of security software and software subscriptions that are highly interdependent with support, the Company determined that the vendor has ongoing performance obligations with the end customer that are not separately identifiable from the software itself. The Company also determined that the vendor has ongoing performance obligation for sales of certain third-party maintenance, support and service contracts. In these instances, under the new guidance, the Company has determined that it does not have control and is acting as an agent in the sale. When acting as an agent in a transaction, the Company accounts for sales on a net basis, with the vendor cost associated with the sale recognized as a reduction of revenue. The change from gross sale to net reporting has no impact on gross profit, net income or cash flows.
The adoption of the standard is expected to result in a reduction of reported revenue of $288.8 million, $253.5 million and $218.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2017, 2016, and 2015, respectively. The adoption is not expected to have any impact on income from operations or the Company’s balance sheet.
The tables below present historical information adjusted as if the standard had been adopted on January 1, 2015 for all periods presented.
Disaggregation of Revenue
The Company expects to report the following categories of revenue in its disaggregation of revenue disclosure under the new standard.
Hardware and software product — Hardware product consists of sales of hardware manufactured by third parties. Hardware product is delivered from our warehouse or drop shipped from the vendor. Revenue from our hardware products is recognized on a gross basis upon transfer of control to our customers as we control the product prior to delivery and are responsible for handling any returns of the product. Software product consists of sales of perpetual and term software licenses developed by third party vendors. Software licenses are delivered via electronic license keys provided by the vendor to the end user. Revenue from our software products is recognized on a gross basis upon transfer of control to our customers as a functional product is delivered at that time, the Company controls the product prior to delivery and is responsible for handling any returns of the product.
Software - security and highly interdependent with support — Software - security software and software highly interdependent with support consists of sales of security subscriptions and other products whose functionality is highly interdependent on updates and support services delivered directly by the third-party vendor to the end user. Revenue from our software-security and highly interdependent with support products is recognized on a net basis upon fulfillment to our customers as the Company is not responsible for providing future updates that are critical to the functionality of the software and our performance obligation is complete at the time of delivery.
Maintenance, support and other services revenue— We generate our maintenance, support and other services revenue primarily from third-party post-contract support arrangements, and, to a lesser extent, from third-party professional services and software as a service subscription. The service period typically commences upon transfer of control of the corresponding products to our customer. Revenue from maintenance, support and other service revenues is recognized on a net basis upon fulfillment to our customers as the Company does not provide the services and our performance obligation is complete at that time.
Contracts with multiple performance obligations— Some of our contracts with customers contain multiple performance obligations. For these contracts, we account for individual performance obligations separately if they are distinct. The transaction price is allocated to the separate performance obligations based on relative standalone selling prices.
The expected impact to reported results, by disaggregated revenue category, as if adoption of .the new revenue recognition standard occurred on January 1, 2015 is as follows:
In July 2015, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2015-11, "Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory (Topic 330)", ("ASU 2015-11"). Topic 330, Inventory, currently requires an entity to measure inventory at the lower of cost or market, with market value represented by replacement cost, net realizable value or net realizable value less a normal profit margin. The amendments in ASU 2015-11 require an entity to measure inventory at the lower of cost or net realizable value. ASU 2015-11 is effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016. We adopted ASU 2015-11 during the quarter ended March 31, 2017 and it did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In March 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting ("ASU 2016-09"). ASU 2016-09 simplifies several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities and classification on the statement of cash flows. This ASU is effective for years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2016. Effective January 1, 2017, the Company adopted the provisions of ASU 2016-09 related to the recognition of excess tax benefits in the income statement and classification in the statement of cash flows on a prospective basis and the prior periods were not retrospectively adjusted. The Company has elected to account for forfeitures of share-based awards when they occur in determining compensation cost to be recognized each period. The adoption of ASU 2016-09 did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases ("ASU 2016-02"). ASU 2016-02 supersedes the lease guidance under FASB Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 840, Leases, resulting in the creation of FASB ASC Topic 842, Leases. ASU 2016-02 requires a lessee to recognize for all leases with terms longer than 12 months in the statement of financial position a liability to make lease payments and a right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term for both finance and operating leases. This ASU is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently assessing the potential impact of adopting ASU 2016-02 on its consolidated financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326) ("ASU No. 2016-13"). ASU No. 2016-13 replaces the incurred loss impairment methodology for measuring credit losses on financial instruments requiring consideration for a broader range of information in determining timing of when such losses are recorded. ASU No. 2016-13 is effective for the Company in the first quarter of 2020, with early adoption permitted, and is to be applied using a modified retrospective approach. The Company is currently evaluating the potential effects of adopting the provisions of ASU No. 2016-13 on it consolidated financial statements.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (“ASU 2016-15”) ASU 2016-15 which reduces diversity in practice in how certain transactions are classified in the statement of cash flows. The new standard will become effective for the Company beginning with the first quarter of 2018, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of this guidance will not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory.” This amendment is intended to improve accounting for the income tax consequences of intra-entity transfers of assets other than inventory. In accordance with this guidance, an entity should recognize the income tax consequences of an intra-entity transfer of an asset other than inventory when the transfer occurs. The ASU is effective for the Company beginning in fiscal 2019. Early adoption is permitted in fiscal 2018 with modified retrospective application. The Company is continuing to evaluate the impact of the adoption of this guidance on its consolidated financial statements.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-09, “Scope of Modification Accounting”, to reduce diversity in practice and provide clarity regarding existing guidance in ASC 718, “Stock Compensation”. The amendments in this updated guidance clarify that an entity should apply modification accounting in response to a change in the terms and conditions of an entity’s share-based payment awards unless three newly specified criteria are met. This guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within that reporting period. Early adoption is permitted. The Company has evaluated the potential impacts of this updated guidance, and it does not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815) – Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities, which improves the financial reporting of hedging relationships to better portray the economic results of an entity’s risk management activities in its financial statements. The amendments in this update also make certain targeted improvements to simplify the application of the hedge accounting guidance in current GAAP. ASU No. 2017-12 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years; the ASU allows for early adoption in any interim period after issuance of the update. The company is currently assessing the impact this ASU will have on its consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef